If you’re reading this because you have been accepted onto a master’s program that requires you to write a thesis – congratulations! This is a very exciting time in your life. Hopefully what we’re about to tell you doesn’t come as too much of a surprise – as part of your master’s course you are going to be spending a considerable amount of time working on a single written submission. Writing a master thesis proposal may be the longest and most detailed piece of writing that you have ever been asked to complete.
With that in mind, getting some guidance before you begin is an important first step. As you progress through your degree, you may have questions on exactly how to write a master’s thesis and are thus looking to obtain some thesis writing tips to help you on your way.
This post is designed to provide you with a comprehensive guide to writing a master’s thesis in the UK context. It will help you not just now, but will also be something you can refer back to throughout your master’s studies. If you haven’t already, we strongly recommend bookmarking this post so can you find it easily when you inevitably have questions during the thesis writing process.
In this post, we’ll clue you into some strategies best suited to master’s students trying to complete a thesis. We’ll focus on what to expect at each stage, including creating a working plan, doing your reading, undertaking research, writing your master’s thesis, editing it, and leaving time to finish and proofread.
Hopefully, by the time you have finished reading, you will have the confidence and motivation to get going on a path that will lead to ultimate success in your thesis writing.
What is a Master’s Thesis?
A master’s thesis is a piece of original scholarship written under the direction of a faculty advisor. A master’s thesis is similar to a doctoral dissertation, but it is generally shorter and more narrowly focused. As a rule of thumb, a master’s thesis should be publishable as a single article, though it might be longer than a typical article; a doctoral dissertation is generally equivalent to at least three articles. Students who chose to write a master’s thesis rather than a bibliographic essay often do so because they are interested in pursuing further research, for instance in a doctoral program in political science or another discipline, or as a researcher in a public agency. Like a good journal article, a master’s thesis will respond to a debate in the political science literature and will bring new evidence or arguments to bear on the topic. How Long Should it Be? How Long Does it Take? A master’s thesis is generally 40-80 pages, not including the bibliography. However, the length will vary according to the topic and the method of analysis, so the appropriate length will be determined by you and your committee. Students who write a master’s thesis generally do so over two semesters. Finding a Topic Students who are interested in writing a master’s thesis should begin thinking about possible topics early in their academic program. Good research questions often have their origins in seminar papers or class discussions. Keep an idea file where you jot down potential research ideas. Be on the lookout for new data that might help provide new insights into a topic, or for past research that might be productively replicated in other circumstances.
Start with a plan (and stick to it). OK, we realize we may be teaching your grandma how to suck eggs here – starting with a plan is the obvious first step in any piece of academic writing. And yet, as good as everyone’s intentions may be when students start writing a master’s thesis, circumstances (nearly) always arise that make sticking to the plan much more challenging.
So, first tip: when writing your thesis, make sure that your plan is flexible, and allows time for dealing with unexpected circumstances.
Next, reconsider your research proposal. You likely had to write one before you were accepted onto your master’s program. If this was your first time producing a research proposal, you may read it back now and find it’s a little over-ambitious in its claims about what you planned to do. It’s a common trap to fall into, so don’t despair! Book some time with your research supervisor to determine whether your research proposal is realistic for your master’s thesis. If you claimed that you were going to do qualitative interviews of 200 participants across the UK, and you only have a year to complete your master’s, you might want to rethink your project and scale it to something achievable and not set you up for failure.
Another tip on supervisors: make sure that you ask them questions about their expectations throughout the thesis writing process. Will they want to see drafts of your chapters as they’re written? If the answer is yes, finding out these dates will help you to develop a plan to achieve this without scrambling at the last minute.
Another tip for planning how to write your master’s thesis is to set yourself a goal of doing a little bit each day. Framing your thesis in your mind as a long-term project with a deadline very far away in the future will only encourage you to put off writing it. Then ‘far away in the future will all of a sudden be ‘next month’ and major panic will set in, and the lack of time at your disposal will make for rushed, compromised writing.
Set yourself milestones: a realistic plan for writing certain chapters by certain dates. Then within these milestones, commit to writing several words per day, or per week. Then be disciplined and stick to your plan. Avoiding procrastination isn’t easy, but will very much work in your favor in the long run.
A final tip when devising your plan: it is easy to go back and delete words that you do not need during the editing process. Conversely, having to add thousands of words at the last minute will be stressful and sometimes impossible. Plan to start writing early, and budget for, say, 1000-2000 words every day. Not only will you then reach the full word count of your master’s thesis quickly, but you’ll leave yourself plenty of time to edit it, remove sections that aren’t working, and add more words that strengthen the overall assignment, all long before the deadline arrives.
Do your reading
The trick here is to find a balance between reading enough and not spending too much time doing so. There is so much reading to do and it can be easy to drift off-topic.
Doing your reading and producing the final literature review are important components of a master’s thesis, but if you spend too much time reading there won’t be ample time for the data collection process and the writing up phase.
Here are some steps you can take to ensure that your reading process is both effective and efficient.
Step 1 – Understand your research questions
The first step in the reading phase of your master’s thesis is knowing what research questions you are trying to answer. Hopefully, you have identified these questions with your supervisor before you started to work on your thesis. If you do not have a clear research question, your reading strategies will be severely hindered.
Certain databases are going to be more relevant to your area of study. Getting research from these databases is going to streamline the writing process for you to ensure that your project is focused within the context that it needs to be. A research librarian can likely help you focus this search, making the process significantly easier.
Step 2 – Make reading easier
There are several challenges associated with reading. First, it is easy to get distracted, especially if your reading material is lengthy and complex. So you want to keep your reading blocks short and sweet. ‘Chunk’ your reading. Spend 20 to 25 minutes reading without distraction (it hurts we know, but putting your phone on flight mode and leaving it in another room will ultimately help), and then take a 5 to 10-minute break (on your phone, if you must!) before starting up again.
Furthermore, whilst there is a lot of reading to do, it is unrealistic to spend your whole day doing it. Earmark just a portion of the day for reading, then make sure that you have other things that you can do with the rest of your time (like completing your ethics forms, or starting to create your research instruments). By dividing up your time, you are going to be able to keep your focus for longer, making you more productive and efficient overall.
Step 3 – Take good notes
It’s always worth remembering the forgetting curve – ah that’s a paradox if we ever saw one. The forgetting curve is the amount of information you will forget as time passes. It can be quite steep, and after a month passes you likely won’t remember much about what you have previously read. This could lead to disaster when writing up your literature review, so make sure that you take good, thorough notes throughout the reading process.
A good idea is to build out an excel spreadsheet or other list that documents your reading in a detailed and organized manner. You can keep track of key information, such as:
- Location of research
- Sample size
- Research methods
- Main findings
Not only will this help slow the curve of your inevitable forgetfulness, but crucially, it will also make referring back to your reading much easier when you move on to writing your overall literature review.
A note to remember: not everything that you read will end up in your literature review. The purpose of reading is to make sure that you, as a researcher, understand how your project is positioned within your area of study. The literature review explains this to the reader but in much simpler terms. So to reiterate, the reading process is for your benefit, not solely to find studies to include in your literature review.
Do your research
Even if you did research as part of your undergraduate work, research for a master’s thesis is a whole different story. As an undergraduate, your project was likely quite small or it was significantly guided by a faculty member; as a master’s student, this is typically your first opportunity to research a topic that you have chosen to pursue. While this is an exciting step, it also means that you are accountable for your actions.
Your research type and tools
The first step in the research process is deciding on what type of research you will do. Is it going to be qualitative or quantitative? Maybe it will be a combination of the two. You have likely documented this in your research proposal, but your answer to this question will have implications for how you will organize and analyze your data once it is collected.
Regardless of what route you choose, you will need software to help you manage your data. Many universities have free data management software tools available, and if that is the case for your institution then use the –tools available otherwise can rack up quite a hefty bill.
The most common tools are SPSS, which deals primarily with quantitative data, and NVivo which focuses more on qualitative measures. There are numerous other software packages available, and your supervisor may have suggestions about which management tool is most suitable for your project.
Planning for better outcomes
The second step in the process is to think about timing and distribution. If you are planning a qualitative study, perhaps using interviews, remember that you will need to transcribe all of the words that are contained in the interview. While some programs allow speech-to-text translation, it is not always accurate. The process of transcription takes considerable time, and therefore, as a researcher, you should consider how many participants you are looking to have in your project.
While a quantitative project may not have the same level of detail in the data input process, there are likely to be more participants and a wider range of outcomes. As a researcher, you must recruit these participants and ensure that they meet the criteria for inclusion. Finding people who are willing to participate in this type of project (often volunteering their time for free) can be challenging, and so as a researcher, it can be useful to have a minimum number of participants that you believe (based on past research) will give you findings that can be reliable and valid within your context.
It is also worth mentioning that you will likely end up with a lot of data, much more than can be presented in your master’s thesis.
One of the challenging pieces of the research process is deciding which findings make the cut for your thesis and which get saved for a later date. While your data are probably very interesting to you, you mustn’t overwhelm the reader or deviate from the research questions that you set out to answer.
To sum up, the process of actually carrying out research and distilling it for the writing part of your thesis takes time. You need to carefully plan your research steps to ensure not only that you cover everything you intend to, but that you also do it in good time, leaving yourself ample space in your schedule to write up your thesis.
Write up your thesis
It’s helpful to start here by going over the structure of a master’s thesis. The precise way that different master’s theses are structured is largely going to depend on the discipline area. But most of the time, empirical dissertations follow a format including:
- Table of contents
- List of tables/figures
- Literature review
Before you start writing
Before you start to write, draft an outline of your approach to each section including the word count you expect to have (total word counts also vary by discipline).
Within each section, you should also include all the major subheadings that you plan to include in the final version.
Before writing any of the sections, meet with your supervisor to ensure that your outline generally conforms to their expectations. Supervisors are the experts in the field and have likely seen many master’s theses, so they will be able to tell you if you are on the right track.
Beginning to write
It’s worth noting here that the order in which you write all the sections of your master’s thesis can vary depending on your process and preferences.
Once you have a detailed outline, no rule says you have to start with the introduction and end with the conclusion. While the reader will inevitably read your thesis this way, you are free to write the ‘easy’ sections first and then move on to ones that you find more challenging.
For many students, beginning with the methodology chapter makes the most sense, as this allows the project to be framed around the steps that you, as a researcher, will take. The methodology usually includes:
- The research question(s).
- Any hypotheses that you might have.
- Your theoretical framework, and the methods that you will use to collect your data.
- Often, but not always, it includes ethical considerations, especially if you are working with human participants.
For many writers, the methodology chapter is written before the collection of data, whereas other chapters may be written after the data have been collected and analyzed.
The same can be said for writing the literature review. For some writers, the literature review begins to take shape early in the project, but others choose to leave the writing until after data collection has occurred.
Both strategies have value. Writing the literature review early can give a researcher a clear indication of what data already exists and how this could relate to the potential project. The downside is that if the findings from the current project do not match the historical findings from the literature, the whole chapter may need to be revised to better align with the current findings.
Leaving the literature review until after the data collection means a bigger gap between when the reading was done for the project and the writing-up period, meaning that the sources may need to be consulted repeatedly. In addition, leaving all the writing to the end of the project may seem tedious for some writers.
Another element that you will need to consider is how to present your findings. For some researchers, combining the findings and discussion sections makes logical sense, whereas, for others, this presentation makes the chapter unwieldy and difficult to read.
Staying on track
There is no universal approach to writing a master’s thesis, but there are a lot of people out there who are willing to help you along the way. You will put yourself in a really good place if you seek advice at multiple stages in the process and from multiple different sources.
Your university library is going to be a useful source for research and reference, whereas your supervisor can give more discipline-specific advice on writing. Your university will likely have a writing center too that can offer suggestions on how to improve your writing and make sure that you are staying on track. Making appointments at your writing center can also help with accountability, as you will have to complete parts of your writing to discuss them with others.
It’s always worth considering paid help if you’re struggling or just want the peace of mind that comes with having support from a professional. Our sister company, Oxbridge Essays, offers expert guidance in the master’s thesis writing process. Their team of experienced academics has consulted on thousands of master’s theses and can provide valuable help wherever needed.
Finishing and proofreading
When you write those last few words of your conclusion and you have made it to the end of your thesis (hopefully in one piece – you, not the thesis), there may be a sense of finality. It’s a huge feat you’ve just overcome and for that, you deserve a pat on the back.
But finishing writing your master’s thesis is a little like reaching Camp 4 on an Everest summit trek. Without wanting to sound too ominous, there is still a considerable amount of work to do – chiefly, putting the finishing touches on your thesis through editing and proofreading.
Hopefully, during the process of writing your thesis, you sent drafts to your supervisor for review. These drafts may have included individual chapters or various sections within the data set that required clarification. Your supervisor would have provided feedback on these drafts either through written or verbal comments. You must keep track of these comments, as they will become crucial for the final stages before submission.
There are two ways that you can approach the editing of your master’s thesis. Both have value and it depends on how you view the process of writing. These are:
- Individually edit sections as they are returned from the supervisor.
- Edit at the very end, so that the editing can be consistent across sections.
With the first strategy, the editing process is broken up into manageable chunks, but in the end, you will have to go back and re-edit sections to improve the clarity and flow.
With the second strategy, you may be able to achieve better flow, but the number of edits at the end may seem overwhelming and take up considerable time.
These challenges bring us back to the importance of a timeline. Leaving several weeks for the editing process is necessary because editing can take longer than you think. Also, once you have made these necessary edits, you will need to go through and proofread your document to make sure that the fine details are consistent across chapters. This includes things like making sure acronyms are clearly defined, tables are appropriately numbered/titled, punctuation and syntax are accurate, and that formatting and alignment are consistent.
Something you may find challenging during the finishing process is knowing when to stop. With writing, there are always changes that can be made – ideas or sentences that can be written just a little bit better or slightly more clearly. You could spend years (really!) refining your work – writing and rewriting sections to make them exactly how you want them – but the simple fact is: you do not have time for that.
Use the time that you do have for editing your thesis to the best of your ability, but also be willing to say “this is good enough” and submit your work.
Handing something in that you have worked diligently on for a long time is a truly satisfying feeling, so try to cherish that moment when it comes.
Also, it goes without saying but is always worth the reminder: the expert editors we have on board here at Oxbridge Editing can not only relieve a phenomenal amount of effort in this final hurdle of your assignment but, thanks to their experience and skill, they will also ensure your thesis is flawless and truly ready for submission.
Guidelines for writing your master thesis
Part 1: Choosing a Topic
- Think about what interests you. You will spend time working on this project, so you must choose a topic that you are truly interested in, something that you will not grow bored of after a short period. Try thinking about your favorite subject of study -it may be a particular author, theory, period, etc. Imagine how you might further the study of that subject. If you are having trouble thinking about your academic interests, you might consider skimming through papers you wrote for your graduate courses and see if there is any apparent topic that you tend to gravitate towards.
- Choose your thesis question. Carefully consider questions for your Master’s thesis that will generate important research and answers for the members of the educational community and their clients. In your Master’s thesis, you must answer the thesis question with conviction and clarity in the written presentation submitted to complete a Master’s degree. Make sure that your question and the answers provided will provide original content to the body of research in existence. A judicious question will also keep research focused, organized, and interesting.
- Conduct your research. To answer the central question of your master’s thesis, you’ll need to conduct the research necessary. Read the texts, conduct the experiments, and do what you have to do to answer your thesis question. This will allow you to see if your project is worth moving forward with, or if there are some inherent problems that you may need to work out. It will also help you gather the information you’ll need to move forward to the next steps.
Part 2: Selecting your Sources and Texts
- Complete a literature review. Review the literature and research currently available that is relevant to your Master’s thesis. This also includes newer literature that reflects the state of research on a specific topic. This review of the literature must be exhaustive to ensure that your Master’s thesis will be important and not redundant. Your thesis idea must be original and relevant. To ensure this is the case, you need to be aware of the context of your research, what other people have said on the subject, and what the general opinion of your topic is. Take notes on the background information about your topic and the people involved in the available material.
- Choose your primary sources. Primary sources are those that are written by the person who created the idea/story/theory/experiment/etc. They are the important factual base that you will use in your Master’s thesis. For example, an agreement between two parties or a novel written by Ernest Hemingway, or a scientific journal article in which new results are documented for the first time would both be considered primary sources. The answer to the question, of whether some text can be regarded as a primary source, however, depends totally on your research question.
- Choose your secondary sources. Secondary sources are sources that are written about primary sources and the problem of your thesis. They are important to include in your Master’s thesis because you’ll need to demonstrate that you have a solid understanding of the critical context of your topic and that you understand what the major scholars in your field have to say about the subject. For example, if a book was written about the agreement between two parties, a book about Ernest Hemingway’s novel or a scientific journal article examining the findings of someone else’s experiment would both be considered secondary sources.
- Manage your citations. Depending upon your field, you might front-load most of your research into an early chapter of the thesis, or you might include sources throughout the entirety of the document. Either way, you’re likely to need to keep track of many different citations. You need to keep track of your citations as you write, rather than trying to add them after you are finished writing. Use the in-text citation format appropriate to your discipline. The most common formats are Chicago, MLA, or the Prussian System. Create a reference entry for each source you cite in the text of your document or a footnote. You must use citation management software such as EndNote, Mendeley, or Zotero. Only these will enable you to insert and move citations within your word processor program and will automatically populate the bibliography at the end of your thesis.
Part 3: Planning an Outline
- Know the requirements for your field/department. An English Master’s Thesis has different requirements and employs different formats than a Master’s Thesis in Chemistry. There are two types of Master’s theses: Qualitative. This type of thesis involves completing a project that is exploratory, analytical, or creative in some way. Usually, students in the humanities will complete this kind of thesis. In History, however, also the second type of study is applicable. Quantitative. This type of thesis involves conducting experiments, measuring data, and recording results. Students in the sciences, sociology, and history usually complete this kind of thesis.
- Nail down your thesis idea. Prepare a clear statement of the central thesis question that you intend to answer with your research. Being able to state your thesis explicitly is important. If you struggle to state the question, you might need to rethink your project altogether.
- Prepare an outline. The outline will be beneficial to you to “see where you are going” as you move forward in your project, but also to give your committee members an idea of what you want to accomplish and how you plan to do so.
Know what to include. You should check with your university for the exact requirements, but most Master’s theses should include the following:
– Title page
– Signature page (with the completed signatures of your advising committee -usually attained at the defense, or after the project is deemed complete)
– Table of Contents (with page numbers)
- Body of paper
– Works Cited or Bibliography A) Sources B) Secondary Works
– Any necessary appendices or endnotes
Part 4: Moving through the Writing Process
- Make a schedule. One approach that works for many people is to use a reverse calendar, where you plan your writing schedule from the due date and work backward. If you know how much time you have to complete the project and break it up into manageable parts with individual due dates (whether these due dates are simply for you or if they are for your committee chair as well), you will be less likely to get overwhelmed by the scale of the project.
- Write a little every day. Writing 30 finished pages in two weeks is a daunting task, but if you write 500 words every day, then you will be able to meet that deadline with ease. Try not to get frustrated and put off your work because then it will pile up and become unmanageable.
- Take breaks. It is important, especially when working on a large-scale project, to give your brain a break now and then. You cannot stay focused and on-task 100% of the time without losing content quality, and letting yourself step away from your ideas for a couple of days will give you fresh eyes when you come back to your work. You’ll catch mistakes you did not see before and come up with new answers you could not think of before.
- Write your introduction. You may find that your thesis proposal is a useful jumping-off point for writing your introduction. You might want to copy and paste sections of your proposal for the start of your introduction, but remember that it is okay to change your ideas as they progress. You may want to revisit and revise your introduction at several points throughout your writing process, perhaps even each time you finish a large section or chapter.
- Incorporate the review of the literature. If you were required to write a review of the literature before beginning your thesis, good news: you’ve already written almost an entire chapter! Again, you may need to reshape and revise the work, and you will likely also find occasion to add to the review as you move forward with your work. If you do not already have a review of literature written, it is time to do your research! The review of literature is essentially a summary of all of the existing scholarship about your topic with plenty of direct quotations from the primary and secondary sources that you’re referencing.
- Contextualize your work. After reviewing the existing scholarship, yous should explain how your work contributes to the existing scholarship—in other words, you’re explaining what you are adding to the field with your work.
- Write your thesis. The remainder of the thesis varies greatly by field. A science-based thesis will involve a few secondary sources as the remainder of your work will involve describing and presenting the results of a study. A literary thesis, on the other hand, will likely continue to cite secondary scholarship as it builds an analysis or reading of a particular text or text.
- Write a powerful conclusion. Your conclusion should detail the importance of this Master’s thesis to the subject community and may suggest the direction that future researchers might follow to continue with relevant information on the subject.
- Add supplemental information. Be sure to include relevant charts, graphs, and figures as appropriate. You may also need to add appendices at the end of your work that is germane to your work but tangential to the central question of your Master’s thesis. Be sure that all aspects of your work are formatted but the guidelines of your institutional and discipline expectations.
Part 5: Finalizing Your Thesis
- Compare your draft with your university’s requirements. The formatting requirements for theses and dissertations are notoriously tedious and complicated. Make sure that your documents adhere to all of the requirements laid out by your department, in general, and by your committee chair, in specific. Many departments or programs provide a document template for theses and dissertations. If you have one of these, it may be easiest to use such a template from the beginning of your work (rather than copying and pasting your writing into it).
- Re-read the entire thesis for correctness. Take a week or so off, if possible, once you have finished writing, and give your brain a break. Then, go back with fresh eyes to catch any grammatical errors or typos you may have made. When you are so deep in the writing process, it is easy to just read what you mean instead of what you wrote. So it is important to take a step back so that you can evaluate your writing more effectively. Additionally, ask a trusted colleague or friend who is a native speaker to read over your thesis to help you catch any minor grammar/spelling/punctuation errors and typos. Make sure you do not commit plagiarism. Everything you quote or paraphrase must be accounted for in a footnote or its equivalent.
- Follow all printing guidelines according to your department’s policies. You will probably have to print two copies of your Master’s thesis for your university, as well as any other personal copies you may want for yourself. Make sure you abide by these guidelines to avoid any potential setbacks during this final stage. Make sure to include the prescribed text concerning plagiarism as handed out by the policy.
Format to Write Masters Research Thesis
While writing a master thesis proposal, a scholar will unsurprisingly be in a puzzle as to how to systematically write it by adhering to a proper structure. No worries now, beneath is the appropriate and useful chapter-wise format depicting the step-by-step procedure to write a master’s thesis.
Chapter 1: Introduction
This section of a massive thesis project usually introduces the readers to the topic. In this chapter, you should further give the notion about the research’s aim, background, problem statement, and outline of the whole massive thesis project.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
The literature review section entails the theoretical framework of the study being conducted. It predominantly consists of the findings of the previous studies carried out by numerous researchers. Typically, it is done to know the gaps in the prior studies which the current study is attempting to meet. Critical analysis of the previous findings of past studies is of paramount importance in this chapter.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology
This section of the thesis presents prospects for you to validate to the reader the procedure through which the research objectives set in the introduction chapter were answered. In addition, this chapter should thoroughly claim for, and validate every, technique that is incorporated while reaching how the study is to be organized. Most importantly, you will have to choose suitable methods or techniques for different types of approaches to data collection; data analysis; strategies; sampling methods; and so forth. Another fundamental thing is to provide a rationale for choosing those suitable methods or techniques to conduct the study. Nonetheless, if you have not justified your choice of methods to the readers, they could be right in supposing that you have, unintentionally, simply guessed at what would function and reached the accurate answer to the research problem.
Chapter 4: Results and Analysis
After conducting the data collection through a myriad of sources, you, in this chapter, will present and analyze the findings. It depicts the evidence of the primary study that you have commenced. There are varieties of methods that can be useful to analyze the data like descriptive analysis, SPSS tool, inferential analysis, correlation and regression, and more in terms of quantitative data. Besides, thematic analysis, narrative analysis, content analysis, and alike can be useful for qualitative data.
However, you will use the approach that you mentioned in chapter 3 of the research methodology. Here, you will highlight the variances and likeness between the primary and the secondary data. This chapter, undoubtedly, is considered the one where you sell your work. It implies this chapter will enable you to understand and interpret the implications of the results obtained from the entire study. It is arguably the most fundamental chapter of a master’s thesis which requires you to organize the data in a systematic and comprehensible manner. This will make your thought processes and understandings clear to the readers of the thesis.
Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations
This section of the thesis enables you to summarize the results. Moreover, it will also allow you to discuss the suggestions, limitations, and scope of future studies. This subsequently facilitates you to unite the findings of the entire thesis by portraying how the original research plan has discoursed in a manner that inferences might be formulated from the results of the master’s thesis. You should not put any new content or references while summarizing the findings in this chapter.
The inferences must bring a statement on the degree to which each of the research objectives has been fulfilled. In the recommendation section, as per the entire findings, you are required to give suggestions based on the objectives which were not met in this study. Limitations will be based on time and resource constraints, data collection stage issues, and so forth like these. The future scope must reflect the suggestions to be considered by future scholars while carrying out the study in identical areas.